Live adult vi
The attacks differ from the above ground forms only in their position with reference to the soil surface.Some subterranean insects spend their entire life cycle below ground.Control measures for internal feeding insects are most effective if aimed at adults or the immature stages prior to their entrance into the plant.A number of internal feeders are small enough to find comfortable quarters and an abundance of food between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf. Gall insects sting plants and cause them to produce a structure of deformed tissue.
The hole made in this way is so small that it cannot be seen with the unaided eye, but the withdrawal of the sap results in either minute white, brown or red spotting on leaves, fruits and/or twigs; leaf curling; deformed fruit; or a general wilting, browning and dying of the entire plant.
Moths and butterflies also have a complete life cycle similar to beetles except that the damaging stage is the larvae or worm stage which usually feeds on the stems, leaves or fruits.
The adult stage, moths and butterflies, feed on nectar or may not feed at all.
A large hole in a fruit, seed, nut, twig or trunk generally indicates where the insect has come out, and not the point where it entered.
The chief groups of internal feeders are indicated by their common group names: borers; worms or weevils in fruits, nuts or seeds; leaf miners; and gall insects.